John and Eleanor's steps leading to their pool.
I'll be adding to this entry later.
When we are using our drawing on graph paper, I like to develop the garden around an axis. I looked up the term "axis" in my little desktop dictionary. An axis is a real or imaginary straight line around which parts are arranged in a symmetrical way. Our livable garden is arranged around an axis. I like to use the term "balanced" instead of "symmetrical". Balance is attained when the proportions of mass, texture and color are proportional on either side of the axis.
In drawing #1 we have the livable garden area of a typical suburban lot. The placement of the building was taken off of a plot plan or drawing. Notes were added to show the views. In drawing #2 we have the beginnings of ideas that the designer has been considering. The design is developing around the axis. Please note that there is a main axis and a couple of minor axis. In drawing #3 we see the addition of trees, shrubs and flowers around the axis. In drawing 4 you will see that things are happening around the axis and their intersections. Walks spring up, features are added. Drawing #5 is the final drawing. The axis will help when it comes to transitioning from a drawing to the actual grounds. It is much easier to measure walkways, borders and paths. Although there isn't one lot in Sunshine that conforms to the boundaries of our drawings, the philosophy is the same. Use the three areas and develop the garden around an axis.
In your private, livable garden area there are six things to consider. Do you have a feeling of spaciousness? Does the lawn area balance with the trees and shrubs, or is one overpowering?
Is your garden interesting? Is it inviting? The garden should make you wantto get out and walk around.
Is it livable? The garden should be a place to do things. Do you want to play outdoor games, sit back in a lounge chair or hurry back into the house?
Does it have imagination? The garden should reflect the family's personalities.
Can you circulate around the garden? This not only means paths, walks and driveways, but open areas as well.
Are the plants well chosen? Most people have an idea of the kind of plants they would like to have in their garden. Try to incorporate the ones listed in the planning questionnaire. The plants will add true beauty to the garden.
The landscape plan should start with a survey of existing conditions. Part of that survey are the answers to the questions posted in the last section. Continuing the survey requires paper and pencil. I have always used graph paper with a scale of 1"=8' or 1"=10'. Each square on the sheet of paper will equal one foot. Acquiring a plot plan will give you the measurements on where the house sits on the property and the boundaries of the property. If a plot plan is not available, a very good tape measure is your best friend. Once you have a drawing of where all of the existing buildings sit on the property it is time to discuss the division of the property. The property should be divided into three distinct areas. Those areas are the entrance development, the work unit and the livable garden area.
The Entrance Development
Most entrance developments are influenced by the neighborhood in which the house is located. Most homes are landscaped as not to be too radical. It's nice to be different but not too different. The entrance development should allow the house to blend in with nature and give visitors a favorable impression.
The Work Unit
The size and shape of the work unit will vary depending on the families requirements. The work unit is where the clothesline, compost pile, wood storage, vegetable garden, potting yard, lath house, greenhouse, cold frames and anything else associated with maintenance of the house and grounds. It is possible that the work unit may not even be needed.
The Livable Garden
The livable garden is just what is says, the area for outdoor living. The variations possible are unlimited. They depend only on the family requirements and good taste. This area is the most difficult to plan and requires the most discussion.
A successful landscape development does not automatically happen. It is usually the result of planning. The four steps I use are suitability, utility, economy and beauty.
The landscape design should meet the families needs. If it doesn't, it has very little value. Dad may want a garden, potting shed and a place for flowers. Mom may want a safe area for the children to play. Little Johnnie may want open space to practice baseball and football. How do you fit it all in? Well, it's easy if you plan before you plant.
I have always used a check sheet. This gives the family a chance to give input on what they expect a landscape design to be.
Family members, age and outdoor hobbies:
Is a special play area for children required? If so, what equipment will be required? (Swings, slide, sand box, overhead ladder, chinning bars, etc.)
What can this area be used for in later years?
Will the family washing be done at home? If so, will a clothesline be required?
What type of heating fuels are used. What provision for storage and delivery of fuels is being made?
Is the family horticulturally minded? Has the family had enough experience to evaluate maintenance problems? Will outside help be available to assist in maintenance?
Is a vegetable garden desired? If so, size? Space for cut flowers, size? Are small fruit trees desired? If so, what kind?
Does climate and insect life permit outdoor living or will the garden be primarily for viewing from the house? Will the yard be used for barbecues and picnics? Are large groups to be entertained?
What plants would the family like to include?
Does any member of the family have an interest in one plant genus, such as roses, iris, dahlias, etc., or special subjects, as potted plants?
What garden features interest the family? (Pergol, pools, sun dials, bird baths, seats, benches,etc.)
Special structures or areas? (Greenhouse, lathehouse, coldframes, hot beds, potting yard, tool storage, etc.)
We have to keep in mind that we are planning not only for today but for situations in the future. It is really important to put the answers on paper.
The house and the garden should be viewed as one unit. They both have work areas and they both have areas for enjoyment. The relationship between the house and garden should be practical. The living areas of the house should open to living areas in the garden. The same goes for the work areas. If you store firewood, it would be wise to keep it close to the room(s) with the fireplace(s). Like the rooms of a house, the areas of the garden should be planned around their expected use.
We need to consider economy in terms of space, garden development and maintenance.. Failure to do so will result in disaster. You need to make sure you design the proper space for the activities you wish to pursue. Do you have enough room to grow the vegetables you desire? Is there enough lawn area to enjoy the activities that require lawn? Do you have to spend every spare moment maintaining the property? A properly designed garden can save you both time and money.
Planning tip: Keep the lawn area free of trees, shrubs and flower beds. It will make the lawn easier to maintain and give you fewer items to mow around.
Beauty is easy to define. Fortunately it is in the eye of the beholder. I have collected garden magazines for over 30 years. They are a great collection of thoughts and ideas. I am always looking for sources of ideas for things I consider beautiful and can use in my garden.
Our Sunshine neighbor, Dr. Tracy (PhD) and I found ourselves on the topic of mountain gardening last summer. Just after she and her husband, Tim, moved into their new home, I had offered her a Columbine (Aquilegia ) for her garden as a house warming gift. That gift has sparked many a great conversation. Tracy is originally from Virginia and is use to having plants galore. I have 5 years of horticulture training; I taught a class in home landscaping and authored a publication on gardening in the high altitudes of Wyoming. Between us, we could talk for hours.
Sunshine has a very short growing season. Our last frost is usually around the 1st of June and the 1st frost is around the middle of September. We are in the USDA hardiness zone 3. Besides having a very short growing season, we have other things that make gardening in Sunshine a challenge. Critters! The deer, squirrels, chipmunks and rabbits love our flowers and vegetables. These challenges have brought the mountain gardeners together. Tracy thought it would be a good idea for all of us frustrated gardeners to join together and form a garden club. We are still in the talking stage and I'm sure it won't be long until we are organized.
Gardening tip from our friend Deb. Do you know that if you sprinkle blood meal around the plants the deer won't eat it
My youngest son, Michael, has asked me to write a book about gardening and home landscaping for him. He wants something he will be able to pass on the his children.
Before I take on that task, I wanted to put together a few thoughts for our mountain gardener friends in Sunshine. If you are outside the Sunshine area, please remember that these thoughts and ideas are designed for our particular area. It may seem strange to most flat landers that we do not plant our annuals until late May or early June. Gosh, we had 3" of snow on the 24th of April this year.
Gardening tip: I like to watch the weather forecast in the spring. I have found the perfect time to put down fertilizer is just before a spring snow storm hits. When the snow melts, it gently soaks the fertilizer into the ground. I have always liked to add 20-10-5 (NPK) to the soil in our climate. NPK stands for Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this case the fertilizer would be 20% nitrogen, 10% phosphorus and 5% Potassium. The nitrogen promotes shoot growth, the phosphorus promotes root growth and the potassium helps keep the plant healthy.
I have spent the last two months dreaming and drooling as I pondered over seed catalogs. I have drawn out plans on how I want to lay out my vegetables. I have made a list of the annuals I would like to see growing in my few flower beds. I can tell when the ground is no longer frozen by watching the rhubarb (genus Rheum). This subterranean prelude always gives me hope that the snow will soon be ending and spring is near. When the little red nubs start showing, the ground is no longer frozen and it's time to start preparing the soil.
Our soil is basic in nature. I like to add peat moss. Even though it is generally very damp in the spring, July and August can be very dry. The peat moss, although lacking in nutrients, helps the growth of the plant by holding the much needed moisture. For nutrients, I pay a visit to my girlfriend,Chili. If you live in Sunshine or have followed my journal, you know Chili is my neighbor Holly's horse. Years and years of mucking out the corral have left a rather large pile of aged horse manure. Although not as good as cow manure, it is an excellent source of nutrients. My BIL Mike, does not use it in his vegetables, fearing any nasty germs it might carry. I found the flower beds love it!
Pruning, why do we do it? There are three basic reasons we prune:
1) To cleanout dead, dying,diseased and broken wood.
2) To eliminate over crowding.
3) To thin out, shape and train the plants growth pattern.
The broad leaf trees and shrubs have not yet leafed out. Now is the perfect time to prune all but the flowering trees and shrubs. The flowering trees and shrubs get pruned while they are still dormant.
To fully understand the process of pruning, I must first jump into a little botany. I promise to keep it simple. There is no need to cover the botanical term for Red algae in this forum. (In case you are wondering, it is Rhodophycophyta.)
The stem growth takes place at the apical meristem. This is is located at the buds and the nodes. The nodes do not usually become active unless the bud is destroyed. In the diagram above, if you want the branch to grow up, you would prune just above the node on the lateral stem pointing up. In this case, the stem would continue to grow, causing the new branch to grow in an upwardly direction.
This is an example of a 3 year growth pattern showing the proper place to prune a small, flowering tree.
If I waited to purchase my favorite annuals at the proper time to put them into the ground, I wouldn't haven't many choices left. The folks in Boulder can plant a full two weeks before I can. The early shoppers pretty well pick over the choice plants before I am ready to plant. I have built a cold frame. This allows me to purchase the plants and keep the healthy until it is time to plant them. A heat tape keeps the plants warm on those early spring nights when the temperature drops below freezing. During theday, I open the top doors, allowing the plants to acclimate to the outdoor temperatures.
Tulips and St. Francis in my Sunshine garden.